The mid to late 1880s saw the introduction of alternating current (AC) systems in Europe and the U.S. AC power had an advantage in that transformers, installed at power stations, could be used to raise the voltage from the generators, and transformers at local substations could reduce voltage to supply loads. Increasing the voltage reduced the current in the transmission and distribution lines and hence the size of conductors and distribution losses. This made it more economical to distribute power over long distances. Generators (such as hydroelectric sites) could be located far from the loads. AC and DC competed for a while, during a period called the War of Currents. The DC system was able to claim slightly greater safety, but this difference was not great enough to overwhelm the enormous technical and economic advantages of alternating current which eventually won out.[1]

Just as impressive: Its overall J.D. Power score for customer satisfaction. The 1,000 point score considers price, communications, corporate citizenship, enrollment and renewal, and customer service. At 709, Green Mountain Energy scored the highest of all Pennsylvania companies, well above the 669 state average, and a solid 20 points ahead of the next closest provider we looked at — Constellation.


The Bayou City is diverse in its population, culture and electricity rates. Houston attracts college students who attend well-known schools in the area such as Texas Southern University, University of Houston and Rice University. Also, Houston's entertainment and year-round events appeal to young couples and families. Attend an Astros game in Minute Maid Park or visit the Houston Zoo – there's always something happening in H-town.
In Pennsylvania, you can choose your electricity and natural gas plan and supplier. More than 2.1 million households and over 250,000 businesses in the state already have made the switch. Now there's reason for more customers to explore electricity deregulation - two PA utilities have asked the state's Public Utilities Commission for permission to raise energy rates for transmitting power to homes and business.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) explains how the United States generated about 13% of its electricity through green energy sources this past year. Specifically, Fort Hood is looking to create renewable energy initiatives around the base to improve its energy efficiency. More than three years ago, Fort Hood completed its solar field that consists of approximately 3,000 panels. Over the next year, the military base is hoping to introduce wind power installations too.
You can choose month-to-month plans, longer-term contracts or even plans that allow you to pre-pay for electricity, so you know you're never using more energy than you can pay for. Reliant is here, along with our customer service team, to help you get the electricity plan you need and lower your electricity consumption (and electricity bill) wherever you can. 
Pennsylvania offers first-time retail shoppers an attractive discount with the Standard Offer Program. The Public Utility Commission has a rotating list of retail providers and upon enrollment, they’ll hook you up with a 12-month fixed-rate plan at seven percent off the current utility price. You can cancel at any time without fees. For 1,000 kWh per month usage, PECO quoted us a price to compare of 7.13 cents. A seven percent discount brings that rate to 6.63 cents per kWh (lower than any plan on our provider list) — a $60 savings after a year of service.
According to the EIA, the average American household uses 897 kWh of energy per month. Knowing that number, and how your own home’s usage compares, provides insight into the amount of energy you use per device. Our Energy Estimator will show you why simple changes like programming your thermostat or turning off televisions and computers when not in use will help lower energy costs.
To make reducing your usage and saving money on electricity even easier, we have an advanced online account dashboard available for all our residential electricity customers. You can go there anytime to pay your bill, check your usage, change your personal information and learn more about offers we have that apply specifically to you. All customers can sign up for our Weekly Summary Email, which helps you stay on top of your usage every week. Interested in earning bill credits for reducing your usage? Eligible customers can sign up for Degrees of Difference, a program that gives you a bill credit for using less electricity than normal during designated high-demand time periods. You'll get countless benefits when you choose Reliant as your electricity provider.

We’ve done some of the work for you. We homed in on five of the biggest electric companies in Pennsylvania: Constellation Energy, Direct Energy, FirstEnergy Solutions, Green Mountain Energy, and Just Energy. We compared their plans, rates, special offers, and philanthropies, then dug into the contract fine print to uncover sneaky fees and the truth about discounts. Because most providers offer a range of options, we also looked at the companies behind the plans — paying attention to their corporate impact, customer service reputation, and customer resources in particular.
Anyone on a standard rate tariff is at risk of seeing rising energy bills – so one of the best ways to protect from energy price increases is to switch to a fixed rate tariff. This means that for the duration of the deal, the cost of your energy and gas will be fixed. You may be able to switch to a cheaper fixed price tariff at any point, or you may have to pay a fee if you switch before the end of the deal – so check your paperwork.
Gone are the days when you had to contact electric companies to discover their rates, and negotiate a better deal on your own. Today, Vault Electricity does the work for you, handling the entire process of finding the best Texas electricity rates and plans from providers that have a pedigree of business stability, customer service, eco-friendliness, and financial transparency. This allows you to shop for electricity in just a few minutes, right from your computer.
Before 1997, all energy services were provided by the utility with prices regulated by the Public Utility Commission to match the wholesale price of energy – subject to change as often as once a month. Following the law’s passage, however, prices became “deregulated”, meaning alternative suppliers could provide energy supply at different rates than the PUC-approved price of energy.
Several states have Community Choice Aggregation (CCA) laws that allow local governments to pool their community’s electricity need in order to purchase power on their behalf.  While savings is not always guaranteed, many municipalities are able to obtain discounted electricity prices. You’ll have to check with your state regulatory commission. You can get started by clicking on your state in this map.

Electric bills for customers in the Houston area can more than double in summer months, mainly because air conditioning. Not coincidentally, electric rates also rise in the summer months because of this increase in demand. The most dramatic rate increases occur in month-to-month plans, but electric rates do increase across the board for all fixed-rate contract lengths.
Deregulation seeks to drive down costs and spur innovation by breaking up energy monopolies. In their place, two separate entities take care of 1) generation and 2) distribution. Electric Generation Suppliers (EGS) create electricity and set their own prices for consumers. Electric Distribution Companies (EDC), a.k.a., your local utility company, bring that electricity to your home.
To make reducing your usage and saving money on electricity even easier, we have an advanced online account dashboard available for all our residential electricity customers. You can go there anytime to pay your bill, check your usage, change your personal information and learn more about offers we have that apply specifically to you. All customers can sign up for our Weekly Summary Email, which helps you stay on top of your usage every week. Interested in earning bill credits for reducing your usage? Eligible customers can sign up for Degrees of Difference, a program that gives you a bill credit for using less electricity than normal during designated high-demand time periods. You'll get countless benefits when you choose Reliant as your electricity provider.
 1.     Contracts:  Before, there were no contracts.  You signed up or you didn’t.  When it’s the only game in town, you have to play by their rules.  Nowadays, you’ll see these ultra-fabulous rates bandied about but it’s only by carefully scrutinizing the fine print that you’ll discover those wonderful rates come with a one-year lock-down or other catches.
Even though customers in deregulated cities routinely pay more for electricity, there is a bright spot. The gap between the average price paid for electricity between deregulated cities like Houston and regulated cities like San Antonio have dwindled to the narrowest point ever to 8.8 percent. Back in 2006, customers in deregulated cities were paying nearly 47 percent more for electricity than their counterparts in regulated cities.
3.     Customer service:  When the only utility available has lousy customer service, nobody is surprised.  They don’t even pretend to care – they know they have you over a barrel.  With all these new players in town, however, it’s a slap in the face to be treated like royalty until you’ve signed on the dotted line and now they won’t even return your calls or the person on the phone can’t string three English words together or if he does speak English, he’s brand new and panicking trying to pull up your account information.
You may have noticed a lot of electric companies offering a ton of plans and services. But not all light companies in Texas are created equal. So which one is right for you? At Amigo Energy, we want you to trust that you’re getting a custom energy plan at a good price—not just a quick fix that’ll cost you more down the road. In fact, JD Power gave us four out of five stars for pricing, beating out a ton of other large retail electricity providers.4
The world's first public electricity supply was provided in late 1881, when the streets of the Surrey town of Godalming in the UK were lit with electric light. This system was powered from a water wheel on the River Wey, which drove a Siemens alternator that supplied a number of arc lamps within the town. This supply scheme also provided electricity to a number of shops and premises to light 34 incandescent Swan light bulbs.
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